Classical management theory is based on the belief that workers only have physical and economic needs. It does not take into account social needs or job satisfaction, but instead advocates a specialization of labor, centralized leadership and decision-making, and profit maximization.

 The human relations movement resulted from Elton Mayo and Fritz J. Roethlisberger's Hawthorne studies, which were designed to find ways to increase worker productivity at Western Electric's Hawthorne Works factory. The researchers watched workers closely as they altered working conditions such as lighting levels, rest periods, and the length of a work day. They found that the productivity levels of those participating in the experiment increased but not directly due to the conditions that Mayo and Roethlisberger were imposing on them. 
Weber was unlike most workplace leaders today. His theory of management, also called the bureaucratic theory, stressed strict rules and a firm distribution of power. He would've scolded today's managers, most of whom are open to new ideas and flexible work arrangements, for their leadership style. 
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